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Introduction: The C-shaped root canal system is an anatomical variant of the root canal structure in which a continuous slit or web connects individual root canals. Hence in the present study we aim to investigate biology and morphology of the c shaped root canals in endodontics by using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images.
Material and methodology: Three-dimensional CBCT images of 92 mandibular second molars having C-shaped root canals were analysed to determine their configuration using a modification of Melton’s classification, as well as the thinnest walls and their location. Associations between configuration type and distance from the canal orifice to the apex, as well as associations between the directional orientation of the thinnest root wall and distance from the canal orifice to the apex, were assessed by Fisher’s exact test.
Results: The most common configuration types were Melton’s type I in the coronal region and Melton’s type III in the apical region. Mean thicknesses of the thinnest root canal walls were 1.39 ± 0.38, 0.85 ± 0.25 and 0.77 ± 0.20 mm in the coronal, middle and apical regions, respectively. The thicker the root canal walls at the orifice region, the greater the decrease in thickness towards the apical region (P <0.05), with the linguo-central root area being the thinnest. The pattern of decreasing thickness from the orifice to the apex formed a nonlinear cubic curve.
Conclusions: The most prevalent configuration types were Melton’s type I (coronal region) and type III (apical region). The linguo-central root area was the thinnest in C-shaped root canals of mandibular second molars. These anatomical variations should be considered during surgical or nonsurgical endodontic procedures.