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Cytomegalovirus infection acquired in utero or during childbirth significantly affects neonatal mortality and, to a large extent, is responsible for early and late childhood morbidity. Of great interest are prospective observations of infected but clinically healthy children at the time of birth. The study of the frequency of infection of mothers (419) and their newborns (220) children with cytomegalovirus, followed by analysis of the process of early postnatal adaptation during intrauterine infection with the pathogen showed a high frequency of infection with pathogens TORCH in women in labor (according to the results of PCR for CMV, HSV types 1, 2, Ch.trachomatis and Ur. urealyticum, respectively, 51.9% and 44.7%, 13.6% and 6.8%) and their children (18.5%, 14.8%, 9.2% and 0.5% ). Detection of the CMV genome in blood and urine samples and a high viral load in a blood sample of mothers were significant factors of a high risk of intrauterine infection of children with the pathogen. All children infected intrauterinely with CMV at the time of birth and in the early neonatal period did not have specific manifestations of the infectious process, however, its influence led to the development of asphyxia (OR = 1.2), the birth of premature and immature babies (OR = 2.7), intrauterine malnutrition (OR = 7.3), small developmental anomalies (OR = 4.3).