Main Article Content
Nowadays, age-related changes in the mechanisms of articular cartilage and meniscus formation have been poorly studied. The study respectively included the subjects of the mature in the age period 36-60 years and the elderly aged 61-74 years. The morphological characteristics of the articular cartilage were learned by the methods of morphometry, cyto and karyometry, histology, histochemistry. There is an accumulation of glycosaminoglycans inside the cells and their absence in the main substance also leads to a decrease in the secreted synovial fluid, which serves as a lubricant for the articular surfaces, and increases friction. During the study, age-related changes were found: an increase in the cytoplasmic-nuclear ratio (CNR), cell volume, intra-articular friction, which are a consequence of a deeper process of cellular adaptation, when the latter becomes aimed only at preserving the cells themselves, and not at ensuring the function of articular cartilage. Articular cartilage in old age is characterized by a decrease in the number of cells in the field of view, which occur in an amount from 6 to 1, their swelling, loosening, detachment, rupture of the surface layers of tangential fibers, the presence of focal seals, an increase in intra-articular friction of the articular cartilage. All this leads to deformation of the free surface of the articular cartilage in old age.