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The current study aimed to describeand compare thehistomorphological and histochemical structure of proventriculusin local Guinea fowls and Geese. In this study twenty four, healthy birds are used, obtained from local supplier at Baghdad province. Studied birds are divided into two equal groups(12) from each species and each one include(6 male and 6 female), each group was used for histological and histochemical approaches. After euthanasia,suitable size of specimens of its wall fixed in (10%) neutral buffered formalin for histological staining and others fixed in Bouin’s solution for histochemical stains then processed in routine histological procedure, using the Hematoxylin-Eosin, Masson Trichrome, Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) and Combined PAS-Alcian Blue (pH 2.5) stains.
The results showed the general histological structure of proventriculus in studied birds were similar,bothproventriculus wall composed of mucosa, submucosa, muscularis and serosa, but with some morphometrical differences in its wall. Mucosa lined by simple columnar cells presents a numerous folds and superficial simple tubular glands. The thicksubmucosa predominantly constituted by voluminous and numerous deep submucosal glands, a compound tubular glands which organized in pyramidal or conical shape structures (adenomere). A thick tunica muscularis of smooth muscle oriented in an inner longitudinal layer and an outer circular layer.Serosa structured from loose connective tissue coated by mesothelium.
The histochemical findingsin both studied birds provintriculus showed the surface lining columnar cells of mucosal folds luminal borders of mucosal glands, positively reacted with (PAS) stain, while the submucosal glandular epithelium showed negative reaction, cells lining the luminal borders of submucosal glands and their ducts gave a positive reaction apically. On applying PAS -AB(PH 2.5) stain, surface cells of mucosal folds, tubular mucosal glands and cells lining the luminal adenomers, collecting and excretory ducts of submucosal glands gives appositive reaction for PAS part of this technique, While the secretory cells of submucosal glands revealed negative reaction for this stain.