Mango Malformation: Etiology and Preventive Measures
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Mango malformation is a major constrain in mango production worldwide causing heavy economic losses depending on cultivar type and susceptibility. The malady has variously been ascribed to be acarological, viral, fungal and physiological in nature. Here, we discuss the ethylene origin nature of malady. There are indications that most of the symptoms of mango malformation resemble with those of caused by ethylene effects. Multiple evidence reports of putative causal agents including Fusarium mangiferae to augment the endogenous pool of „stress ethylene‟ are well documented. The malformation on mango inflorescence has been known since 1891, but the disease on young seedlings in the nursery was first reported from Saharanpur. On young seedlings the disease appears at quite an early stage. Even three to four month old plants have been found affected. There are many variations in the symptoms produced on the inflorescence. Various grades from a totally malformed and compact type to a loose form are found. It is quite common to find a few malformed spikes in an otherwise healthy inflorescence or vice-versa. The percentage of bisexual flowers was found to be much less in affected panicles than in the normal ones. Mango Malformation Disease is a fungal disease of mangoes caused by Fusarium species Fusarium moniliforme var. subglutinans. Mango is the only known host of the disease. Numerous studies on physiological, fungal, acarological, nutritional aspects have attempted, still the nature of the disorder is not fully understood. The current study investigated the endogenous hormone levels in healthy and malformed tissues at different bud development stages. Our results demonstrate that significantly low GA and high auxin levels in mango buds infected with F. mangiferae lead to development of malformed panicles.