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The present study was conducted in the Department of biology at the College of Science toinvestigate some of the effects that can be caused by benzoate sodium treatment on the functional efficiency of the rats' kidneys by evaluating some functional indicators in addition to studying the histological changes of the treated rat kidneys. (36) Female rats Rattus norvegicus were used with average age 55 days and weights ranging from 175-200 g. They were divided into three equal groups. Each group included 12 female rats, the control group (C) injected daily with normal saline, the first treatment group (T1) injected daily with sodium benzoate at a100 mg/kgbody weight. The second treatment group (T2) injected daily with sodium benzoate at a concentration of 300 mg/kg, and the experimental period was two weeks. Animals were sacrificed after the end of the experimental period, and blood samples were taken from the abdominal vein to study some blood parameters that included (RBCs,WBCs,Hb, and Lymphocytes) and some serological tests to study levels (urea, creatinine, sodium, and potassium). The kidney was also removed to study histological changes. The results of the study of blood parameters showed a significant decrease in red blood cells (RBCs) and hemoglobin (Hb) due to sodium benzoate treatment compared with the control group.On the other hand, sodium benzoate caused a significant increase in white blood cells (WBCs) and lymphocytes compared to the control group. A significant increase in serum sodium, potassium, urea, and creatinine levels was observed in the first and second treatment groups compared with the control group. The microscopic examination of the kidneys showed the effect of sodium benzoate in the structure of urinary tubules. It caused degeneration in some urinary glomeruli and the expansion of urinary tubules with cells infiltration , congestion and calcification in some urinary tubules. We conclude from this study that sodium benzoate negatively affects the functional efficiency of the urinary system.