Prevalence of Anabolic Steroids Usage among Gym-goers in Mosul City, Iraq

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Abdulrahman Mazin Hashim, Dr. Salwa Hazim Almukhtar


Background: Anabolic steroids (AAS) are artificial derivatives of testosterone that have been used for improving performance and physical appearance, using these substances is a major concern for public health especially gym-goers, the objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of anabolic steroid use, to identify the types that are used, and the adverse effects of anabolic steroids on the reproductive system. Method and Material: A cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted and distribute it on 1375 male gym-goers from 20 different gyms which have been chosen randomly from both sides of Mosul city, from 15th October 2020 to 10th February 2021. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software version 26, descriptive statistics computed, independent t-test, and Chi-square test. Results: Totally, (1375) of gym-goers were studied, (275) of them had a positive history of AAS usage, which represent the prevalence of AAS was (20%) of the gym-goers in Mosul city, the overall mean of the participants age was 26.33±5.782 years, a significantly higher weight, BMI (P. value: 0.000) was reveal among the participants of AAS users in contrast to non-users, that the most used type of AAS was Testosterone Cypionate (Depotest) 400mg, which was used by (25.45%) of gym-goers, 35.64% of the AAS users suffered from erectile dysfunction after cessation of using AAS, and 32.73% suffered from impaired libido. Conclusion: Anabolic steroid misuse prevalent was high among male’s gym-goers attending gyms in Mosul city, Iraq. community health education is required through health promotion programs for gyms-goers about the long-term adverse effects that consequence using AAS.

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Dr. Salwa Hazim Almukhtar, A. M. H. . (2021). Prevalence of Anabolic Steroids Usage among Gym-goers in Mosul City, Iraq. Annals of the Romanian Society for Cell Biology, 25(6), 1403–1411. Retrieved from